This is a tax on the earned and unearned income of individuals and trusts. Income includes earnings from employment, profits from a trade carried on by an individual (either alone or in partnership), income from pensions, and investment income such as interest, dividends and rents.
In the UK, the rates of income tax for 2015/16 are the basic rate (20 percent) on income up to £31,785, the higher rate (40 percent) on income between £31,786 and £150,000 and the additional rate (45 percent) on the excess.  Different rates apply to savings and dividend income.
Various deductions can be claimed for income tax purposes such as certain losses, subscriptions to professional bodies and donations to charities. There is a cap of £50,000 or, if greater, 25% of income on reliefs which are not otherwise limited, but note that this does not apply to charitable donations. See also personal allowance